Nanotechnology is the education and development of structures on a nanometric scale. “Nano” is a prefix of the International System of Units that comes from the Greek νάνος, this means that dwarf, and corresponds to a factor 10 ^ -9.
It is carried out to the period gadgets, which corresponds to one billionth of a meter (10 ^ -9 Meters), 1 Nanometer.
On this scale, new properties and phenomena observe, ruled by using Quantum Mechanics' laws. These specific residences are scientists take advantage of to create new substances (nanomaterials) or nanotechnological devices.
Nano-technology guarantees solutions to multiple troubles that humanity currently faces, consisting of environmental, power, health (nanomedicine), and plenty of others. However, those new technologies can result in risks and risks if they may be misused.
- One of the pioneers in Nanotechnology is the American physicist Richard Feynman, who, in 1959 at a congress of the American Physics Society at Caltech, gave the speech.
- There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom (There is a lot of space down there), in which he describes a process that would allow for manipulating atoms and molecules individually through high precision instruments.
- In this way, systems could be designed and built at the nanoscale, atom by atom. Feynman also warns that these nanometric systems' properties would be different from those present at the macroscale in this speech.
- 1981, the American engineer Eric Drexler, inspired by Feynman's speech, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the article "Molecular engineering".
- An approach to the growth of general capabilities for molecular manipulation describes in more detail what has been advanced in previous years by Feynman.
- The term “Nano-technology” was applied for the first time by Drexler in 1986, in his book “Engines of creation: the next era of Nanotechnology”. He describes a nano- technology machine with the ability to replicate itself.